Tip of the Week 79 - How to adopt the Puppet Developer Kit (PDK) to your code

PDK alows you to easily get unit tests for your puppet modules.

The Developer Kit is available for Linux, OS X and macOS and Windows.

What is inside?

In the PDK installation package you get some Puppet and Ruby versions installed into /opt/puppetlabs/pdk. In version 1.5.0 you get Ruby 2.1.9 and 2.4.4 (installed into /opt/puppetlabs/pdk/private/puppet/ruby/) Installation of Puppet versions is spread among the ruby versions. For Ruby 2.1.09 we have Puppet 4.7.1, 4.8.2, 4.9.4 and 4.10.11 (installed in /opt/puppetlabs/pdk/private/puppet/ruby/2.1.0/gems/). In Ruby 2.4.4 you find Puppet versions 5.0.1, 5.1.0, 5.2.0, 5.3.6, 5.4.0 and 5.5.1 (installed in /opt/puppetlabs/pdk/private/puppet/ruby/2.4.0/gems/)

Besides this git is bundled in version 2.14.2 in /opt/puppetlabs/pdk/private/git.

Starting a new module

The Puppet Developer Kit is based on a module template. The template is bundled as a bare git repository in the installer and is located at /opt/puppetlabs/pdk/share/cache/pdk-templates.git/.

The module which is created by PDK uses Gemfile for installation of ruby extensions required for testing like rspec-puppet and provides CI configurations for travis and GitLab CI runner.

Generate the Module

The module creation process starts with asking several questions regarding the PuppetForge account name (you don’t need one, it is just a name, which is prefixed to the module name), the author name, license and supported operating systems.

The creation is started by running

pdk new module <modulename>


pdk new module demo
pdk (INFO): Creating new module: demo

We need to create the metadata.json file for this module, so we're going to ask you 4 questions.
If the question is not applicable to this module, accept the default option shown after each question. You can modify any answers at any time by manually updating the metadata.json file.

[Q 1/4] If you have a Puppet Forge username, add it here.
We can use this to upload your module to the Forge when it's complete.
--> mea

[Q 2/4] Who wrote this module?
This is used to credit the module's author.
--> tuxmea

[Q 3/4] What license does this module code fall under?
This should be an identifier from https://spdx.org/licenses/. Common values are "Apache-2.0", "MIT", or "proprietary".
--> Apache-2.0

[Q 4/4] What operating systems does this module support?
Use the up and down keys to move between the choices, space to select and enter to continue.
--> RedHat based Linux, Debian based Linux, Windows (Use arrow or number (1-7) keys, pres--> RedHat based Linux, Debian based Linux, Windows

Metadata will be generated based on this information, continue? Yes
pdk (INFO): Module 'demo' generated at path '/Users/mea/Desktop/example42-blog/demo', from template 'file:///opt/puppetlabs/pdk/share/cache/pdk-templates.git'.
pdk (INFO): In your module directory, add classes with the 'pdk new class' command.

Generate module content

With PDK you can create classes, defined_types and tasks. Generating providers is an experimental feature at the moment.

pdk new class demo
pdk (INFO): Creating '/Users/mea/Desktop/example42-blog/demo/manifests/init.pp' from template.
pdk (INFO): Creating '/Users/mea/Desktop/example42-blog/demo/spec/classes/demo_spec.rb' from template.

This generates a Puppet class and the according basic unit test file.

Creating a self defined Puppet resource type is similar:

pdk new defined_type demo::foo
pdk (INFO): Creating '/Users/mea/Desktop/example42-blog/demo/manifests/foo.pp' from template.
pdk (INFO): Creating '/Users/mea/Desktop/example42-blog/demo/spec/defines/foo_spec.rb' from template.

Tasks are created by running:

pdk new task run_demo
pdk (INFO): Creating '/Users/mea/Desktop/example42-blog/demo/tasks/run_demo.sh' from template.
pdk (INFO): Creating '/Users/mea/Desktop/example42-blog/demo/tasks/run_demo.json' from template.

As you can see, PDK creates you a stub file using .sh extension. The JSON file is the description of the task.

Using PDK on existing module

On your module base directory just run pdk convert. This will add all required files to your module. Please note that several existing files might managed by the PDK template from now on. How do you re-enable your individual settings and configurations?

Adopting PDK to your code

PDK manages several files and will overwrite them when running pdk update. This is especially for Gemfile, Rakefile, spec/spec_helper.rb and spec/default_facts.yml.

These files are managed and owned by PDK. But how to adopt these to your specific needs?

Adding ruby gems

PDK does not include the hiera-eyaml gem. If you want to run tests with eyaml, you must install the hiera-eyaml gem within PDK. Installation of Ruby gems is done via Gemfile. Any additional gem can be placed either in ~/.gemfile or in Gemfile.local. Please note that Gemfile.local is excluded from git in .gitignore file!

Another solution is to use the .sync.yml file:

      - gem: hiera-eyaml
      - gem: puppet-lint-resource_reference_syntax
      - gem: puppet-lint-trailing_comma-check
      - gem: puppet-lint-variable_contains_upcase

The .sync.yml file allows you to also specify additions to other files:

  hiera_config: 'spec/fixtures/hiera.yaml'
    - 'class_inherits_from_params_class'

Adding your own code to spec_helper

Using sync.yml will be less optimal when you want to add lots of content to spec_helper. In this case you can use the spec/spec_helper_local.rb file instead.

Adding more facts

How to add more facts to your tests. e.g. you want to make suse of an ssh module which has an ::ssh_version fact. In this case you add the additional facts to spec/default_module_facts.yml instead.

Running individual tests

PDK allows you to not only use pdk validate or pdk test unit. You also have the option to run specific pdk rake tasks: pdk bundle exec rake -T gives you the complete list of rake tasks available.

Happy hacking, Martin Alfke